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Telemetry is a set of procedures to measure physical and chemical quantities from a distant position to the place where phenomena occur when there are access limitations.
Telemetry equipment obtains the information by means of transducers that transform the physical quantities to be measured into equivalent electrical signals, which are sent to the observation point by means of electrical waves for their collection and analysis.
One of the main applications of telemetry is meteorology. The equipment installed in probes and meteorological balloons allow to obtain mediated of the high layers of the atmosphere and to make maps that help to predict the climate.
A similar process, although more sophisticated, is that carried out by meteorological satellites, which obtain images and measurements of both the upper layers of the atmosphere and the surface with optical images, in the visible and infrared spectra normally. Sometimes they have radar detectors. The sensor signals are sent by a radio station to the ground.
Among the milestones of telemetry systems, when microelectronics was in its early stages of development, it is worth highlighting the Mariner II space probe, launched by the United States in 1962. It carried on board instruments capable of detecting and analyzing radiation emitted by Venus.
The former Soviet Union made a series of devices for the exploration of Venus and intended to land on its surface, called Venera and sent from 1967. The first to arrive successfully was Venera 7 (in 1970), which He posed in an area known as Beta Regio, and performed X-ray analysis and photographs of the surrounding rocks.
Space telemetry arose from the need for transmission of measurements from probe balloons and from the control of flight tests and verification of airplanes, rockets, missiles, probes, etc. It has been very useful in artificial satellites for the transmission to Earth of the measurements made on board them, and in manned capsules, since the safety of man in orbital flight depends closely on the telemetric system.
The transmission, by interplanetary probes, of the measurements made in the vicinity of the celestial bodies, as well as the transmission of television shots from, for example, the Moon, has been possible thanks to the spectacular advances in telemetry.
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