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A eclipse It is the darkening of a celestial body by another. As the celestial bodies are not still in the sky, sometimes the shadow that one casts covers the other, so the latter looks dark.
In the case of the Earth, the Moon and the Sun we have two modalities: eclipses of the Sun, which consist of the darkening of the Sun seen from the Earth, due to the shadow that the Moon casts; and eclipses of the Moon, which are the darkening of the Moon seen from the Earth, because it is located in the area of shadow cast by the Earth.
If we place a ball between the light and the wall, an intense circular shadow and a larger, but weaker circular shadow will be observed on the wall. In the same way, the Moon and the Earth project in gigantic cones of shadow produced by the illumination of the sun.
When the Moon stands between the Earth and the Sun, the cone of its shadow is cast over an area of the earth, and the people who live in that area remain in the dark, as if it were night, because the Moon eclipses, sun cover This star is seen as covered, which is nothing but the Moon. This is an eclipse of the Sun.
Similarly, when the Moon crosses the cone of shadow of the earth, it disappears in view of the inhabitants of the unlighted hemisphere (night) which can witness, in its entirety, the eclipse of the Moon.
The eclipse of the Sun occurs only on a small strip of the Earth, because the Moon, due to its smaller size, does not completely hide the sun for the entire Earth.
The eclipses of Luna can be of two types: totals: when they are in the shadow cone of the Earth, and partial: when only partially introduced in the shade.
On the other hand, the eclipses of the Sun can be of three types:
Totals: When the Moon stands between the Sun and Earth, and the inhabitants do not see sunlight for a few minutes.
Partial: When the penumbra covers an extension of Earth and the inhabitants that are in it only see a portion of the Sun.
Annular: When the moon's cone of shadow does not reach Earth because it is too far from the planet to hide the solar disk.
The shadow cone is divided into two parts: umbra or total shadow, and penumbra or partial shadow. For people who are in the area of the umbra, the eclipse will be total, while for people who are in the gloom the eclipse will be partial. The shadow band or umbra is 270 km and the penumbra reaches up to 6400 km in width. In a year there can be a maximum of 7 eclipses and a minimum of 2.
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